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Mapping of Save the Children’s work on Children Affected by Armed Conflict – focus on activities related to CAAFAG and training of military and peacekeepers

mardi 14 avril 2015

To apply to this consultancy, please send your letter of motivation and CV to scidakar@savethechildren.org no later than April 28th, 2015 at midnight

Consultancy Services – “Impact of Armed Conflict on Children” - 20 years after the Graça Machel report

Mapping of Save the Children’s work on Children Affected by Armed Conflict – focus on activities related to CAAFAG and training of military and peacekeepers

Terms of Reference
Strengthening Child Protection in AU Peace Support Operations in Eastern and West Africa

1. Background
The aim of this consultancy is to map the vast work undertaken by Save the Children (SC) in the last 20 years since the publication of the ground breaking Gracia Machel study in 1996 on Children Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups (CAFAAG) and training of Military and Peacekeepers on Child Protection.
Children are extremely vulnerable in emergencies, whether they be man-made or natural disasters. They are at risk of separation from their families ; recruitment into armed forces or groups ; sexual violence ; psychosocial distress ; abduction ; trafficking and economic exploitation ; genocide ; physical violence ; killing and maiming ; and other forms of harm.
It is reported that of more than 150 major conflicts since the Second World War, 130 have been fought in the developing world. Nearly 80 per cent of the 53 million people uprooted by wars today are women and children. Since 2001, the participation of child soldiers has been reported in 21 on-going or recent armed conflicts in almost every region of the world.
While children have always been affected by war, in recent years, armed conflict has taken on new dimensions with major consequences for children ; the non-combatants have become the main victims. The most shocking development in contemporary conflict is the deliberate targeting of civilians, due in part to the strategic blurring of the lines between combatants and civilians and modern warfare has no fronts with battles happening in urban centers, schools, streets and alleys. Technological advances in weaponry and the proliferation of small arms have contributed to the increased use of child soldiers. Lightweight automatic weapons are simple to operate, often easily accessible, and can be used by children as easily as adults.
The targeting of civilians most often involves killing, maiming and sexual violence, with claims that these acts are in reprisal for suspected support of the opposition or for attacks by opposing forces. Respect for humanitarian spaces has greatly diminished ; spaces that earlier were considered “off-limits” are increasingly under attack.
• The psychological and social aspects of child development, and children’s overall well-being, are continually compromised during the violence, insecurity and instability of armed conflict. This can have short term and long term implication for children. Even though at times they can find extraordinary ways to cope with traumatic experiences, the long term psycho-social effects of conflict may undermine their future. As stated “it is easy to build a child than to repair an adult”
• During conflict and also during flight from the dangers of conflict, children are exposed to multiple physical dangers such as shelling, landmines and unsafe living environment leading to physical harm including death. Children are also exposed to rape, killing and maiming by rebel groups
• Family separation is a common factor and separated children are most at risk of recruitment into armed groups or compelled to practice harmful livelihoods coping mechanisms. Families and children end up as Refugees or being internally displaced exposing them to further vulnerably, abuse and exploitation.
• The recruitment and use of children by rebel groups and, in some cases, government forces, is common. Children are recruited in many different ways. Some are conscripted, others are press ganged or kidnapped and still others are forced to join armed groups to defend their families. One of the most basic reasons that children join armed groups is economic. Once recruited they are engaged as combatants, porters or sex slaves. Children are most likely to become child soldiers if they are poor, separated from their families, displaced from their homes, living in a combat zone or have limited access to education.
• The breakdown of national and community-based child protection systems make girls and boys especially vulnerable to abuse, exploitation, violence and neglect. Discriminatory attitudes and practices that existed prior to an emergency often intensify during a humanitarian crisis, and some children become excluded from child protection services or information due to their gender, age, ethnicity, sexual orientation or disability.
• Often children cannot go to school during and in the immediate aftermath of conflicts as schools are intentionally and unintentionally targeted by the armed groups and also used as bases by soldiers. Schools also end up becoming potential recruiting grounds for rebel groups.
• Children are also exposed to the grave violations including sexual violence and abductions

All civilians in conflict countries have experienced a whole range of violations, from exposure to sexual violence and displacement to a lack of access to health care, education, safety and security. Women and children have had to bear the brunt of the consequences of war « Armed conflict kills and maims more children than soldiers, » notes a United Nations report by Graça Machel on the Impact of Armed Conflict on Children in 1996.
Despite these devastating consequences, global humanitarian funding for children affected by conflict remains limited. Child protection and education in emergencies are among the least funded humanitarian sectors, since more immediate life-saving provisions of food, shelter and medicine often take priority.
In response to a key recommendation from the ground-breaking Graça Machel study on the impact of armed conflict on children (UN 1996) which clearly stressed the necessity of putting the protection of children on the international peace and security agenda, Save the Children Sweden (SCS) started training military personnel, with a focus on pre-deployment training of peacekeepers, in child rights and child protection in Africa in 1998. This programme gained further momentum after research undertaken by SC that demonstrated the sexual abuse of children by peacekeepers and other humanitarian workers .
Prior to the unification as one Save the Children, different SC members were active in various conflict setting all over the world, working on “DDR” programmes : supporting the release and reintegration of former children associated with armed forces and groups (CAAFAG), undertaking various programmes including advocating for policy changes, undertaking research on CAAFAG , community awareness and sensitisation in an attempt to prevent recruitment and successfully reintegrate former child combatants.
With support of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) in Addis Ababa Ethiopia, Save the Children is now implementing a project to strengthen child protection in AU Peace Support Operation in Eastern and West Africa. The project has a specific purpose to facilitate the inclusion of child rights and child protection within the operationalization of the African Standby Forces process in order for the ASF to carry out standardised and mandatory pre-deployment training for all contributing troops and equip them with the skills and knowledge to prevent and respond to violence against children during and after conflict. Moreover, it responds to the identified lack of apparent and coherent information on children involved in armed conflict.

2. Objectives of consultancy
The aim of this consultancy is to map the vast work undertaken by the different members of Save the Children prior to unification and SCI since transition, on CAFAAG and training of Military and Peacekeepers on Child Protection. The mapping will highlight innovative projects, successes and specific case studies, with a main focus on work undertaken in Africa but taking into account the global footprint of SC in this area.
The outcome of this mapping can then be used for advocacy and communication at all levels – national, regional and global.

3. Overall objectives and scope
• With the support of a key focal person identify the various projects and programmes undertaken by SC members in the conflict context, focusing on CAAFAG (and its related issues, such as DDR etc.) and training of military and peacekeepers
• Categorise these projects based on the thematic issues that it covered
• Review all researches, assessments, project proposals, documents and reports
• Identify and record total direct and indirect reach breaking down the figures by gender, country and thematic support
• Record case studies
• Draft fact sheets on the different thematic areas (such CAAFAG, DDR, sexual violence, training military and peacekeepers) and factsheets on regional profiles

4. Methodology
Most of the work is based on a desk review of SC projects (including all the different SC members) and programmes and interview with child protection staff working on these projects/programmes. This information will be provided to the consultant by SC. A focal point will be identified in each SC member to provide the consultant with the necessary documents.

Collect key evaluations, assessments, research reports and other key documents by SC Members on CPiE in the setting of armed conflict.

The consultant will propose and present a research methodology, including tools and questionnaires which will be approved by SC prior to the signing of the agreement.

After the submission of the report by the consultant, SC will ensure lay outing and printing of the report.

5. Expected Output

• A final work plan, which includes the list of key documents to be consulted and staff to be interviewed
• A draft report to be submitted for feedback to project team and revised following the comments
• A finding report not exceeding 50 pages, including at least 5 case studies with an executive summary not exceeding 2 pages, with an annex including fact sheets by thematic focus and by region and total direct and indirect reach breaking down the figures by gender, country and thematic support. The proposed layout of the document will be finalised after discussions with the SC coordinator.

6. Timeframe
The consultancy should not exceed 45 working days.

7. Qualifications and experience
• Experience working at Save the Children, preferably in the area of CPiE/ CAAC
• Advance degree in one of the following areas : International Relations, International Law, Development Studies, Peace and Conflict studies or similar
• Proven experience in conducting participatory research with international organizations
• Proven experience in report writing
• Excellent written and oral communication skills
• Excellent English, French is desirable

8. How to apply :
To apply to this consultancy, please send your letter of motivation and CV to scidakar@savethechildren.org no later than April 28th, 2015 at midnight